Global Issues >> Quality of Life >> What the World wants Project
What We Have and What We Want
Section 1: The World Problem State
Our global problems may seem insurmountable, even inconceivable to some. Globally between 13 and 18 million people die each year due to starvation or starvation-related causes.(2) That is nearly as many people dying each day as Americans who died in the entire Vietnam War. More than 800 million people are malnourished in the world and routinely go without enough food to live in optimal health.(3) Despite monumental strides in medical science which have improved the longevity and quality of life for the average human, large segments of the world's population continue to suffer from preventable diseases and lack access to even basic health care. For example:
- Some 20% of the world's children go without basic immunization, most of whom live in remote and often impoverished areas where infection is more likely to lead to death.
- Over 9 million children die each year from preventable causes, most of them from dehydration, routine infections, or one of several major diseases for which vaccines are available.(4)
- Some 500,000 women die in childbirth each year while over 3 million infants die from dehydrating diseases that could be eliminated through breast feeding or Oral Rehydration Therapy, a simple and cheap mixture of clean water, sugar and salts. .
- Over 17 million people die each year from curable infectious and parasitic diseases such as diarrhea, malaria and tuberculosis.(5)
- Over 500 million people are infected with tropical diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness, river blindness, and schistomiasis, all of which are now preventable.
- Over 18 million people are infected with the AIDS virus.(6)
- More than a billion people lack access to any health care.(7)
- There are 1.75 billion people without adequate drinking water.(8)
- A billion people are without adequate housing,(9) and 100 million are homeless.(10)
- Nearly a billion people, mostly women, are illiterate, and about 130 million children at primary school age and 275 million at secondary level are not enrolled in school.(11)
- There are over 53 million uprooted people or refugees in the world, 80% of which are women and children.(12)
- There are over 110 million landmines scattered in 64 countries killing and maiming over 9,000 children, women and civilians of all ages each year, and over one million since 1975.(13)
The developing world is at least $618 billion in debt to the developed world(14) and the gap between the rich and poor grows alarmingly larger each year. The richest 20% of the world now have 85% of the world's income, while the poorest 20% share 1.4%.(15) And, most alarming in a world as dangerous and well armed as ours, there are currently over 79 armed conflicts going on around the world, 65 of which are in the developing world.(16) There have been over 123 million people killed in 149 wars since World War II.(17)
On top of these outrageous conditions are layered the alarming environmental problems confronting the world:
- Around the planet, 26 billion tons of topsoil are being eroded per year from the world's farmland.(18) That's 3 million tons per hour.
- Deserts advance at a rate of nearly 15 million acres per year.(19)
- 10 million acres of rain forest are destroyed annually.(20)
- Over 200 million tons of waste are added to the atmosphere each year.(21)
- Over six billion tons of carbon from fossil fuel burning were added to the atmosphere last year.(22)
- There is a 6 million square mile hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica, and a 4.5 to 5% loss of ozone over the Northern Hemisphere.(23)
- The planet has warmed at least 1° C in the last century, and given the annual carbon, CO2, CFC, and methane transmissions into the atmosphere, it will rise another 2.5° to 5.5° in the coming century.(24)
- There are over 31,000 hazardous waste sites in the US alone(25), while in Europe, Estonia, and Lithuania acid rain has damaged over 122.6 million acres of forest.(26)
- There are over 130,000 tons of known nuclear waste in the world, some of which will remain poisonous to the planet for another 100,000 years.(27)
And, last but not least, keeping the pressure on humanity to produce as much as possible from the Earth-driving the juggernaut described above-is the world's population which is increasing by about 90 million people each year, or about the population of all of Mexico (28).
All or part of the above is what most people who are concerned with the world are aware of in one way or another. We might not know the numbers, but we have heard something is wrong, and it is serious. It is what we read about in the newspapers or hear and see on TV. The pervasive bad news numbs people's concern, compassion or outrage. If you hear an obscenity often enough, it ceases to be an obscenity.
This "bad news" is depressing, even debilitating, when presented as a fait accompli, or as the only thing happening in the world. If the bad news is an accurate image of the world and our future, we are doomed. Equally important, if the bad news is all we can see, we are just as doomed. As Russell Ackoff notes, "The inability to envision a positive future is, in itself, a threat to survival."(29) If we see the glass as only half empty, we are missing something very valuable in our assessment of the situation. Although the "bad news" should not and cannot be denied or minimized, it needs to be understood in a broader context that will allow us to see its true import. And, unless one believes we are a species not worth saving, the bad news needs to be acted upon. It needs to be seen, not in isolation, which makes it appear as if it is the only thing happening in the world, but as part of a complex matrix of "good news/bad news," occurring, with not infrequent regularity, right next to each other throughout the world.
The appalling conditions described in the world problem state do not represent our fate. They do not need to be tolerated because we think "there isn't anything we can do." The crucial missing factor in all the bad news is the good news: there are options to these problems-and there are solutions. Not only is there much we can do now, but the solutions to our global problems are also so clearly achievable and affordable that knowledge of them in their totality can even be inspiring. Minimally, they are an effective antidote to the despair and resignation that hopelessness breeds.
One way of putting the problems of the world in context is to ask, "What should the world look like?" Trying to take action without the answer to this question is like the medical doctor trying to cure someone of liver disease without knowing what a healthy liver is and how it behaves. Because health is more than just the absence of disease and infirmity, we need to be visionaries to define the health of the world.
As mentioned in the introduction, there has been an effort to answer this question. Over the past 24 years, World Game Workshops conducted for corporate, government, university and high school groups have asked the following question to more than 200,000 people: "Given the present state of the world, what is your preferred state?" One of the early surprises of this effort was the unanimity of the preferred state vision that resulted. Whether the participants were government leaders from Malaysia or students from Maine, Motorola executives or Japanese Junior Chamber of Commerce members, they all came up with something very similar.
The following was compiled from all the various groups by eliminating redundancies and using common terms. It encompasses all the groups' collective vision of where they want humanity to be in 20 years.
The above is in obvious contrast to the World Problem State Summary. We already know which is more desirable. But is the preferred state even possible? Are there strategies, policies, programs, artifacts, resources and capital available for building such a beautiful world? If so, how do we acheive them and what are the implications for humanity? The next section examines the various qualities of the preferred state and assesses if there are possibilities for reaching any of this noble vision.
Field tested, cost effective, humane and sustainable solutions
The global food problem is a very complicated situation involving myriad interacting technological, economic, ecological, cultural, geographical and political systems. Every other problem confronting humanity is similarly multidimensional. Adding them all together and then presenting a set of strategies that purport to "solve" these massively complex problems is daunting, to say nothing of naive or foolhardy.
To present the strategies in a short report such as this, when innumerable books have been written on each of these topics, leaves the authors open to charges of superficiality, pollyannism or gross naiveté, bordering on negligence-depending on how seriously you are intimidated by academic credentials, opinions, political leanings or negative world views.
Clearly, to deal with a problem as complex and large as the global food situation in just a few pages is difficult, at best-if the intention is to provide a detailed, step-by-step process or listing of every component of a worldwide strategy. The intention here is different: to present the broad brushstroke outlines of programs, policies and tactics that are in use or could be quickly brought on-line that could solve a systemic problem confronting humanity. They are not suggested as complete or detailed plans, but rather as giving overall direction, scope and strategy.(30)
WHAT THE WORLD WANTS PROJECT
Credits Major References
The What the World Wants Project is by Medard Gabel and the research staff of the World Game Institute The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of: Evan Frisch, whose help with an earlier version of this report was invaluable, as well as Kim Bixel, Chris Randolph, Annette Earling, Nadia Rehman, Christine Boucher, Tony DeVarco and the research staff of the World Game Institute without whose help this version would not exist. In addition, the author would like to thank the many people who provided valuable feedback on earlier versions of this paper, as well as the participants in World Game Workshops at the following sites over the last few years who have all contributed to an evolving definition and refinement of what the world wants:
Astra-Merck, Philadelphia. PA
British Airways, Boca Raton, FL
Bell South, Atlanta, GA
Cigna International, Philadelphia, PA
Glaxo Corporation, Williamsburg, VA
General Motors International Operations, Orlando, FL
General Motors Delphi Group, Detroit, MI
H.J. Heinz, Cape Schanck, Australia
Infonet Services Corporation, El Segundo, CA
Motorola, Beijing, China Motorola, Phuket, Thailand
Motorola, Schaumburg, IL
Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA
Young Presidents Organization, Istanbul, Turkey
Young Presidents Organization, Mexico City, Mexico
Young Presidents Organization, El Salvador
Universities and Colleges
University of Akron, Orville, OH
University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL
University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, Chicago, IL
University of Illinois, Urbana, IL
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
University of Miami, Miami, FL
University of MN, Morris, MN
University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC
University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX
University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI
University of Wisconsin Parkside, Kenosha, WI
Bates College, Lewiston, ME
Belhaven College, Jackson, MS
Bentley College, Waltham, MA
Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY
Broome Community College, Binghamton, NY
Cedar Crest College, Allentown, PA
Central Piedmont Community College, Charlotte, NC
Chestnut Hill College, Chestnut Hill, PA
Colby-Sawyer College, New London, NH
Colgate University, Hamilton, NY
Cottey College, Nevada, MO
Drew University, Madison, NJ
Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA
Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY
Edmonds Community College, Edmonds, WA
Emory & Henry College, Emory, VA
Florida Community College, Jacksonville, FL
Franklin College, Franklin, IN
Hamilton College, Clinton, NY
Harrisburg Community College, PA
Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN
Johnson & Wales University, Providence, RI
LaSalle University, Philadelphia, PA
Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA
Marietta College, Marietta, OH
Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI
Nazareth College at Rochester, NY
North Idaho College, Coeur D'Alene, ID
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
Penn State University, State Coll., PA
Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
Rochester Institute of Technology, NY
Rockford College, Rockford, IL
Salisbury State College, Salisbury, MD
Sauk Valley Community College, Dixon, IL
SUNY-Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY
Thiel College, Greenville, PA
Transylvania University, Lexington, KY
Trinity Christian College, Palos Heights, IL
Upsala College, East Orange, NJ
Upward Bound Program, Lincoln University, PA
Western New England College, Springfield, MA
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA
Yale University, New Haven, CT
African Medical & Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada
AIESEC Sonora, Sonora, Mexico
AIESEC Monterrey, Mexico
AIESEC Penn, Philadelphia, PA
AIESEC Estonia, Tallon , Estonia
AIESEC The Netherlands
AIESEC Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico
AIESEC UKM, Malaysia
AIESEC-Marquette, Milwaukee, WI
AIESEC Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH
AIESEC-Univ. of Minnesota, Minn., MN
AIA Minnesota, Duluth, MN
BC Global Education Project ,Vancouver, BC
Buckminster Fuller Institute, Santa Barbara, CA
Carnegie Science Center, Pittsburgh, PA
Center for Video Education, West Chester, NY
Connections 96 Conference, Victoria, BC
Conservation Foundation, Downers Grove, IL
Diversity 2000, Union, NJ
Discovery Program, University of PA, Philadelphia, PA
Global Energy Network Int'l, San Diego, CA
Great Lakes Invit. Conference, Flint, MI
Instituute voor Publiek en Politiek, Netherlands
International House, Philadelphia, PA
IULA World Congress, Soestrbrg, Netherlands
Junior League of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN
Kentucky Leadership, Frankfort, KY
Lutheran Youth Organization, Grand Forks, ND
Childrens Museum About the World, NC
College Student Personnel Association, Tarrytown, NY
Explora Science Center, Albuquerque, NM
Ecocity Experience, Waitakere Cty, N. Zealand
Girl Scouts of Orange County, Costa Mesa, CA
Goshen Noon Kiwanis Club, Goshen, IN
Iowa Dept. of Education, Des Moines, IA
Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA
IODA Conference, Eilat, Israel
Johnson, Long & Co., Austin, TX
Kentucky Leadership, Elizabethtown, KY
Leadership, Inc., Philadelphia, PA
Lutheran Campus Ministries, Blacksburg, VA
Museum of Discovery & Science, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
NAFSA Conference, Princeton, NJ
National Lutheran Leadership Conf., Minneapolis, MN
NVB-Sweden PAM Northern Chapter, Penang, Malaysia
Pittsburgh Children's Museum, Pittsburgh, PA
Principals' Center Summer Institute, NJ
Presbyterian Peacemaking Program, Hempstead, NY
Rotary International, Calgary, Canada; Sacramento Zoo, Sacramento, CA
Salem Area TAG, Salem, OR
St. Andrew's Lutheran Church, Mahtomedi, MN
Schuylkill Center, Philadelphia, PA
Scottsdale Leadership, Scottsdale, AZ
Shore Consortium for G&T, Atlantic Highlands, NJ
Sister Cities International, Louisville, KY
Student Pugwash, Washington DC
UN Environmental Conference, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
UN 50 Committee of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
Visum Futurum, Gothenburg, Sweden
We the Peoples 2000, Swarthmore, PA
World Bank, Washington, DC
Youth Environmental Summit, Loveland, CO
- UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996);
- UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996 1995, 1994;
- Giving children a future: The World Summit for Children, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, 1990);
- UNHCR Refugees II-95, Public Information Service UNHCR 1995;
- The World Bank, World Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996);
- World Resources Institute, World Resources 1995-96, 1992-93,
- World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996;
- State of the World 1988-96, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996);
- Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone; Energy, Earth and Everyone; World Game Institute, Doubleday, New York.
Introduction and Section 1: What We Have and What We Want
- 1 These people were participants in World Game Workshops, held by the not-for-profit, non-partisan research and education organization World Game Institute, 3215 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104. A UN-affiliated NGO, the WGI has been conducting its research and educational programs for corporate executives, government leaders, educators and students for the last 25 years.
- 2 The World Bank, World Development Report 1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
- 3 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) p. 20; UNDP, Human Development Report 1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 17; World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p.146, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996).
- 4 UNICEF, Giving children a future: The World Summit for Children (New York: UNICEF, 1990), pp. 4-6, Also see, "Child summit: Moving towards a global ethic," Development Forum , 18 (September-October 1990), p. 1.
- 5 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) p. 20.
- 6 ibid.
- 7 1.024 billion in V. Lyon and M. Gabel, World Health Care Deficit (Philadelphia: World Game Institute, 1990), p. 4; The figure is 1.5 billion in UNDP Human Development Report 1990.
- 8 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) p. 18; UNDP, Human Development Report 1990, p. 17.
- 9 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) p. 24; P. McHenry, "Adobe: New Look at a Centuries-Old Building Material," Christian Science Monitor, 17 April 1986, pp. 20-21.
- 10 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) p. 24; UNDP 1990, p. 17.
- 11 UNDP, Human Development Report 1995 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 16; Secretariat of UNESCO, ILY: Year of Opportunity (Paris: UNESCO, 1990), pp. 8-9.
- 12 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996, p. 19, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); UNHCR Refugees II-95, Public Information Service UNHCR 1995; World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p.96, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996); H. Kamm, "One Sign of Our Times: World Refugee Flood," New York Times, 12 September 1990, p. 16. Also, interview with Jewel S. Lapontant, Ambassador-at-Large, U.S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs, 1990.
- 13 World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p.132, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996).
- 14 The World Bank, World Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), $103 billion owed by 'severely indebted low-income countries' and $515 billion owed by 'middle-income developing countries', p.126.
- 15 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 13.
- 16 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996, p. 24, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
- 17 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996, p. 13, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).
- 18 D. Pimentel et. al. "Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits", Science Magazine, p. 1117, Feb. 24, 1995; L. Brown, et.al. State of the World 1988 (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1988), p. 60.
- 19 Brown, et.al., State of the World 1988 p. 6. Original figure in hectares. Actual figure in acres is 14.8 million.
- 20 World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p.117, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1996).
- 21 E. Mansfield, Economics: Principles, Problems, Decisions, 5th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1986), p. 487.
- 22 World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p.64, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1996).
- 23 J. Weiner, The Next 100 Years: Shaping the Fate of Our Living Earth (New York: 1990), p. 152. Percentage loss is from The New York Times, 5 April 1991, p. A1.
- 24 L. Brown, et. al. State of the World 1990, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1990), p. 63.
- 25 P. H. Abelson, "Cleaning Hazardous Waste Sites," Science, 246 (1989), p. 1.
- 26 Brown, et. al., State of the World 1990, p. 107. Original figure in hectares.
- 27 World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p. 88, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996); World Resources Institute, World Resources 1990-91 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 324.
- 28 Population Data Sheet 1996, (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 1996).
- 29 R. Ackoff, Redesigning the Future (New York: Wiley, 1974).
Section 2: How to Pay For It
- 30 For book-length explications of strategies for dealing with at least two of the areas below, see M. Gabel, Energy, Earth, and Everyone, 2nd ed. (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1980), and M. Gabel, Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1979).
- 31 Indigenous organic material refers to animal manure and green "manure" such as intercropping, companion planting, crop rotations and the use of nitrogen fixing plants and trees such as the lucena tree that grows 10-14 feet per year, fixes nitrogen in its roots, and has leaves that are 5% nitrogen which can be used as fodder or mulch.
- 32 W. C. Liebhardt, A low fertilizer use approach to increasing tropical food production. Background papers for innovative biological technologies for lesser developed countries, No. 6 (Washington: Office of Technology, 1981), pp. 285-87.
- 33 Derived by averaging fertilizer use/hectare for developed and developing countries and comparing them. Yields were averaged similarly using cereal yields. (Both data sets from World Resources Institute, 1990/91, pp. 278-281.)
- 34 J. Cherfas, "FAO Proposes a 'New' Plan for Feeding Africa," Science Magazine, 250 (1990), p. 748.
- 35 Derived by dividing Africa's cereal yield into the average for Europe and into U.S. total; cereal yields from World Resources Institute 1990/91, p. 278-279.
- 36 See for example, M. Gabel, "The Regeneration of Africa: Resources, Needs and Capacities" (Philadelphia: World Game Institute, 1985). and M. Gabel and A. Heiland, "National Implications of Resource-efficient Farming Methods for Tanzania", (Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press Inc., 1985).
- 37 See Gabel, Ho-Ping, pp. 114, 117-118.
- 38 With yields in Africa at 26% of U.S. and European yields, an increase of fertilizer applications to even 25% of what they are in the U.S would double yields, according to normal fertilizer response rates. African use of fertilizer is between 1.6% and 8.3% the application rates in Europe. Also, see endnotes 33, 35, and 37.
- 39 Figure was derived by subtracting 2400 calories from the average daily calorie consumption per capita. The difference was divided by 2400 and multiplied by 100 to get the %. 2400 is WHO's baseline for minimum calorie consumption per person per day. Average daily calorie consumption per capita from FAO, FAO Production Yearbook 1988, Vol. 41 (Rome: FAO, 1989), pp. 291-292. Population figures from Population Data Sheet 1990.
- 40 See for example, M. Gabel, "The Regeneration of Africa: Resources, Needs and Capacities" (Philadelphia: World Game Institute, 1985). and M. Gabel and A. Heiland, "National Implications of Resource-efficient Farming Methods for Tanzania", (Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press Inc., 1985).
- 41 See, for example, Gabel, "Tanzania," pp. 3-4.
- 42 World expenditures on illegal drugs is estimated to be $1 trillion; "For the Record", Washington Post, 8-2-95, p. 35.
- 43 US spent $29 billion on weight loss in 1989; U.S. Weight Loss and Diet Control Market, Marketdata Enterprises, 3-89. By 1995 this figure had risen to $34 billion.
- 44 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996, p. 16.
- 45 The Economist, June 1, 1996, p. 100.
- 46 The Economist, December 4, 1994, The Price of Life, p. 74.
- 47 13 to 18 million people saved times $1 million results in $13 to $18 trillion.
- 48 Lowest estimate is $750,000 per human life. One-half of this is $375,000; this amount times the number of humans dying each year from starvation or starvation related causes (18 million) is $6.75 trillion or $18.49 billion per day, $770,547,945 per hour, or 24.6 hours to reach the $19 billion cost of the entire program.
- 49 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996, p. 39.
- 50 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1996, p. 41.
- 51 Costa Rica has raised life expectancy to 74 years, one year higher than the U.S. See 1990 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 1990). Each child is seen at least once per month by a community health worker, more than the average child sees a health worker in the US (personal communication from the Costa Rican Minister of Health).
- 52 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).p. 41.
- 53 Derivation based on UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p. 41. If 1 billion health care workers are needed for 200-250 families, then 1.5 million are needed (based on 1 worker per 225 families) for 150 families. At the average training cost of $500 per worker (UNICEF, p. 41), total training would cost $750 million.
- 54 $8.25 billion per year for salaries, $5.75 billion for supervision, retraining and infrastructure. Salary scale derived from UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, pp. 41-43. Latin America trained 200,000 doctors at $60,000 each or $12 billion total. For the same amount, they could have trained 150,000 doctors (cost: $9 billion) and had $3 billion left over to train and pay half a million health care workers. Since training is $500 each ($250 million total), that leaves a salary of $5500 for each worker ($2.75 billion). Applying a salary of $5500 to each of 1.5 billion health care workers gives a total of $8.25 billion.
- 55 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p.38.
- 56 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p.16.
- 57 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p. 36. Based on 5¢ per person/year.
- 58 U.S. spent $84.7 billion on alcohol in 1995; (Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Commerce).
- 59 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p.16.
- 60 U.S. Government Accounting Office, Panama: Cost of the U.S. Invasion of Panama (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1990).
- 61 U.S. spent $131.95 billion on alcohol and tobacco in 1995; (Bureau of Economic Analysis, Department of Commerce).
- 62 Figured in the same way that the previous strategies for eliminating starvation related deaths. Each life saved being "worth" $1 million and 10 million lives saved per year as a result of global health care coverage. The World Bank measures the loss in human productivity due to disease in "disability-adjusted life years," or DALYs. There have been 1.36 billion disability-adjusted life years lost each year since 1990. Using this as a measuring stick, and valuing each of these lives at $1 million results in the almost absurd number of $1,360 trillion or over 100 times the Gross World Product. Valuing each life two orders of magnitude lower, at a mere $10,000 results in $13.6 trillion per year.
- 63 Estimate by The National Coalition for the Homeless, cited in Fact Sheet: 1989 Campaign for Human Development (Washington, D.C.: Campaign for Human Development, 1989).
- 64 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 24.
- 65 P. McHenry, "Adobe: New Look at a Centuries-Old Building Material," Christian Science Monitor, 17 April 1986, p. 21.
- 66 UNDP, Human Development Report 1990, p. 17.
- 67 McHenry, p. 20.
- 68 UNDP, Human Development Report 1996 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 24.
- 69 Approximately $200 worth of materials per inadequately sheltered person, $1400 per family.
- 70 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p. 37.
- 71 D. Narayan, The Contribution of People's Participation, Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects, Environmentally Sustainable Developmental Occasional Paper Series No. 1, (Washington DC, The World Bank, 1995), p. 59.
- 72 ibid.
- 73 L. Brown, et al., State of the World 1986, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1986), pp. 170-71.
- 74 See endnote #61.
- 75 47 countries have more armed forces than teachers (UNDP, pp.162-163.); 33 countries have more illiterates than literates (UNDP, pp. 130-131.); In "least developed countries", there are 121 soldiers for every 100 teachers; the literacy rate is 37% (1985). The 1985 literacy rate for the "developing" world is 60%. (UNDP, pp. 21, 78.).
- 76 UNDP, Human Development Report 1995 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 16; Secretariat of UNESCO, ILY: Year of Opportunity (Paris: UNESCO, 1990), pp. 8-9.
- 77 U.S. education expenditure per capita is $928 (5.3% of GNP). Population of developing world is 3.78 billion (from Sivard, p. 47); multiplying the two gives $3.5 trillion, or 130% of the GNP of the developing world ($2.7 trillion).
- 78 Number of teachers from UNESCO, Statistical Yearbook 1989, (France: UNESCO, 1989), pp. 3-85-3-105, 3-146-3-202.
- 79 Each satellite would cost about $150 million; each television is $50.; each dish receiver is $50.; each photovoltaic power unit is $100.
- 80 Literacy correlates with cereal yields: 0.653; literacy with GNP/capita: 0.584; literacy with calorie consumption: 0.672. Correlations were done in the software program Global Data Manager. Literacy rate is from Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook 1989 (Washington, D.C.: CIA, 1989). GNP/capita is from The World Bank, pp. 178-179.; cereal yield is from World Resources Institute, pp. 278-279.; calorie consumption is from FAO, pp. 291-292; infant mortality and life expectancy are from World Population Data Sheet 1990. Also see The World Bank, The Contributions of Education to Economic Growth: International Comparisons. World Bank Reprint Series, No. 320 (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1985), where it is pointed out that 4 years of primary education is associated with an average increase in farm productivity of 10% or more.
- 81 Literacy with infant mortality: -0.815 ; literacy with life expectancy: 0.822. Correlations were done in the software program Global Data Manager. For sources of data, see endnote #80. On average, each additional year of schooling is associated with a decrease in infant mortality rate of approximately 9 per 1000; K. Hinchliffe, The Monetary and Non-Monetary Returns to Education in Africa. The World Bank Education and Training Series, Report EDT46 (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 1986).
- 82 P.D. Maycock and E.N. Stirewalt, A Guide to the Photovoltaic Revolution, (Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1986), p. 90-93.
- 83 To replace the amount of electricity presently being produced by nuclear power plants in the U.S. would require approximately 1300 square miles of Arizona or New Mexico desert, an area about 36 miles by 36 miles square with photovoltaic efficiency of 8% operating at 10 hours per day.
- 84 V. Zinger and M. Gabel, World Deficit Report 3: World Literacy (Philadelphia: World Game Institute, 1988), p. 10.
- 85 Consumer Electronics, January 10, 1994.
- 86 An increase of one year in average years of education may lead to a 3% rise in GDP. The World Bank, World Development Report 1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990)
- 87 For energy consumption figures for 1950 and 1964: UN, World Energy Supplies 1950-74. Series J, No. 19 (New York: UN, 1976), p. 11. For 1987 figure: UN, 1987 Energy Statistics Yearbook, (New York: UN, 1989), p. 3.
- 88 1979 oil consumption: 237 million MT [UN, 1981 Energy Statistics Yearbook, (New York: UN, 1983), p.309]; 1987 oil consumption: 156 million MT (UN, 1987 Energy, p. 156); GNP growth rate (1965-1988): 4.3% The World Bank, 1990, p. 179.; Also see: D. E. Sanger, "Japan's Oil Safety Net: Will It Hold?," New York Times, 9 August 1990, p. D18.
- 89 Sanger, p. D18.
- 90 Brown et al., 1988, pp. 182-83.
- 91 The Economist, May 28, 1994, p. 24
- 92 Gabel, Energy Earth and Everyone, p. 102-103.
- 93 The Economist, "Climate Tempestuous" July 26, 1996, p. 68.
- 94 The rapid, and profitable, installation of over 1000 megawatts of wind energy systems in California is a recent example. It is estimated that $30,000 worth of electricity can be produced on each hectare (2.47 acres) devoted to wind farming. (Brown, et al., 1988, p. 177).
- 95 C. Flavin, "Power Shift", World Watch Magazine, January/February 1996. p. 10.
- 96 Brown et al., 1988, p. 183.
- 97The Economist, "Climate Tempestuous" July 26, 1996, p. 68.
- 98 World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996 p. 72-73, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996).
- 99 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990, p. 1.
- 100 Brown et al., 1988, pp. 183-85. Also: much of the developing world's current debt is already discounted to 10-20% face value.
- 101 UNICEF, State of the World's Children 1990 , p. 63.
- 102 1987 World Population Data Sheet, (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 1987).
- 103 C. Wahren, "Population and Development-the Burgeoning Billions," The OECD Observer, 155, (Dec. 1988-Jan. 1989), cited in UNICEF, p. 26.
- 104 UNICEF; p. 27.
- 105 Population Action International, 1990 Report on Progress Towards Population Stabilization, (Washington D.C.). Also: P. J. Hilts, "Plan is Offered for Stable Birth Rate", New York Times, 26 February 90, p. B9.
- 106 N. Sadik, The State of World Population 1989-Investing in Women: The Focus of the Nineties, (New York: United Nations Population Fund), cited in UNICEF, p. 26.
- 107 Valuing the life of a human being at $1 million; valuing the life at $100,000 results in a savings to the world of $4.5 billion.
- 108 Brown et al., 1988, p. 174.
- 109 Brown et al., 1988, p. 174.
- 110 D. Pimental, et. al. "Environmental and economic cost of soil erosion and conservation benefits" Science Magazine, February 24, 1995, p. 1117.
- 111 WorldWatch Magazine, "Matters of Scale," January/February, 1996, p. 39.
- 112 Brown et al., 1988, pp. 175-176.
- 113 Brown et al., 1988, pp. 175-176.
- 114 A. S. Miller, and I. M. Mintzer, The Sky Is The Limit: Strategies for Protecting the Ozone Layer (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1986) pp. 13-19.
- 115 WorldWatch Magazine, "Matters of Scale," January/February, 1996, p. 39.
- 116 The Economist, March 11, 1996.
- 117 The Economist, "Climate Tempestuous" July 26, 1996, p. 68.
- 118 As global warming takes hold most climatologists think that the frequency and intensity of violent storms will increase thereby increasing the losses of the insurance industry.
- 119 Perfume sales were $4.8 billion in 1994; R. Kline, "A Short History of Smell", Sacramento Bee, February 5, 1995 P. FO1
- 120 World Watch Institute, Vital Signs 1996.
- 121 R. L. Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1993, (Washington DC, World Priorities, 1993)
- 122 Genocide, as well as the preparation for genocide, is something that the international community of nations has agreed upon as a war crime. Because a nuclear weapon is a weapon of mass indiscriminate destruction that kills civilians, it is an instrument of genocide, its use an act of genocide, and its users guilty of committing genocide. By the same token, anyone building and stockpiling nuclear weapons is guilty of preparing for genocide and should be prosecuted for such. At Nuremberg, a similar logic was used to convict the builders of the gas chambers at Nazi death camps during World War II. If the bomb, or gas chamber, is used, it is for genocide. Building such a device then is an act of preparing for genocide. One could use this logic to bring current world leaders and their predecessors to trial for genocide.
- 123 M. Klare, Rogue States and Nuclear Outlaws: America's Search for a New Foreign Policy, (Hill and Wang,) 1995.
- 124 "Defense Spending 1: The morning after high noon", The Economist, August 10, 1996, p.20.
- 125 L. Diamond, M. Plattner, Editors, Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Democracy, (Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press), 1994.
- 126 A modest beginning of this tool is the internet based NetWorld Game which can be seen at http://www.worldgame.org/~wgi
- 127 Brown et al., 1988, p. 184. What the World Wants Chart About | Workshops | Global Games | Research For questions please call (203) 787-9295. Contents © 1998 - 2001 WGI, Inc.